NOLVADEX (Tamoxifen Citrate)
Tamoxifen citrate has a molecular weight of 563.62, the pKa’ is 8.85, the equilibrium solubility in water at 37°C is 0.5 mg/mL and in 0.02 N HCl at 37°C, it is 0.2 mg/mL.
CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY NOLVADEX…
is a nonsteroidal agent that has demonstrated potent antiestrogenic properties in animal test systems.
The antiestrogenic effects may be related to its ability to compete with estrogen for binding sites in target tissues such as breast. Tamoxifen inhibits the induction of rat mammary carcinoma induced by dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) and causes the regression of already established DMBA-induced tumors. In this rat model, tamoxifen appears to exert its antitumor effects by binding the estrogen receptors. In cytosols derived from human breast adenocarcinomas, tamoxifen competes with estradiol for estrogen receptor protein.
Clomid’s method of action is actually quite simple to understand – just like all SERM’s, it prevents estrogen from binding to receptors, not allowing this hormone to reach the pituitary glands. This causes stimulation of LH (luteinizing hormone), and FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone), leading to a temporary spike in testosterone levels. Hence its popularity during post cycle therapy.
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) is a polypeptide hormone created in both men and women. It is produced in large amounts during women’s pregnancy and men secrete it in large amounts during puberty. HCG stimulates the natural testosterone production system of men that present low levels of Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH).
HCG is composed of an alpha and a beta sub-unit. The alpha sub-unit is essentially identical to the alpha sub units of the human pituitary gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), as well as to the alpha sub-unit of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), while the beta sub units of these hormones differ in amino acid sequence.
GW-501516 from SARMs for Sale is an orally available, non-steroidal SARM-like “exercise mimetic” that has delivered fantastic results in preclinical and clinical studies alike, and it continues to be investigated in high-impact research. It binds to and activates the PPARδ receptor, which is a crucial hormone-binding effector molecule whose activity is increased by exercise. <strong>This function led to GW-501516 becoming the original “exercise in a pill” compound that rose to prominence in the late 2000s and is still being actively researched for its ability to increase fat-burning capacity, promote the synthesis of type I muscle fibers and reduce cancer burden.
MK-2866 – Ostarine is an orally available, non-steroidal SARM that has demonstrated fascinating results in both preclinical and clinical trials, and it is currently being explored for a number of different indications. It is being investigated clinically and preclinically for a variety of benefits:
increased lean body mass and muscle strength;
prevention of muscle loss;
prevention of osteoporosis;
urinary incontinence due to stress;
and treatment of prostate cancer.
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